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Voor voldoende hydratatie zijn zouten net zo belangrijk als water.
Zouten (zijn mineralen+chloride) moeten altijd met voldoende water ingenomen worden. Een oplossing met daarin ongeveer 1 % zouten is optimaal. Welke zouten zijn er voor een optimale vochthuishouding?
Ongezuiverd zout is veel gezonder dan geraffineerd zout.
Vaak potassium (Kalium) tekort bij CVS.
En ook vaak magnesium tekort.

Potassium has to come from food.

CFS and decrease of intra-cellular Potassium (Kalium)

Normal potassium levels (both intra and extracellular) are essential for initiating a full muscle contraction and neural transmission. Approximately 80% of the body potassium is found in muscle and a further 10% in the brain. The remainder is in the blood stream and other organs. Potassium is primarily an intracellular ion.

A number of medical conditions that cause low potassium are associated with fatigue. Previous studies in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) have not demonstrated an abnormality in the level of serum potassium but the present studies have concentrated on intra-cellular potassium and its relationship with CFS.

An initial study of Total Body Potassium (TBK) measured by whole body counting in 20 matched pairs of patients and controls matched for age, weight and sex showed that there was a significant decrease in the values of those persons who had CFS as defined by the British, Australian and American clinical criteria. Eight pairs of subjects in this study had a whole body DEXA scan which showed no significant difference in the amount of lean body mass or total bone mass.

There was overlap in the levels of TBK in patients with CFS and controls so further investigations were undertaken to define the abnormality.

Patients with CFS were divided into two groups, those with fatigue symptoms only and those patients who had a mixed symptomatology of fatigue and myalgia. This was defined by patient assessment of their disability at the medical consultation.

Fifty-one subjects with CFS only (29) or myalgia/fatigue (22) were studied with a TBK a full biochemical profile and the results were analysed for these 2 groups. The CFS group with fatigue only, showed a significant reduction in the level of TBK and in one half of these the reduction in TBK was greater than 10% of the normal estimated for age weight and sex. The serum potassium levels were normal in all subjects.

In the myalgic group there was no reduction in TBK. There was no correlation in the TBK with age, sex, duration of illness, reduction in daily living activities and time for recovery from exercise. Nor was there any correlation with any allergic symptomatology or recurrent chronic infections. There was a strong inverse correlation of the TBK and the total time spent resting (p=0.02).

These investigations show that in approximately 50% of subjects with CFS where fatigue is the primary symptom there is a significant reduction in the level of TBK. This decrease in TBK is not found if there are myalgic symptoms even if there is associated fatigue.

Longer term studies are needed to define this abnormality further, whether it fluctuates with the disease and its progression is unknown.

This finding of a lowered TBK has great significance as a possible marker of CFS with fatigue and also points a way to improving therapy by determining the effects of normalising the intracellular potassium.

 


Excessive outdoor exercise, particularly during the hottest times of the day, causes you to sweat profusely. Combined, the two make it difficult for your body to maintain healthy potassium levels.

 

Potassium is involved in the storage of carbohydrates for use by muscles as fuel. It is also important in maintaining the body's proper electrolyte and acid-base (pH) balance. Potassium may also counteract the increased urinary calcium loss caused by the high-salt diets typical of most Americans, thus helping to prevent bones from thinning out at a fast rate.

In addition, a diet that is high in sodium and low in potassium can negatively impact potassium status. While the typical American diet, which is high in sodium-containing processed foods and low in fruits and vegetables, contains about two times more sodium than potassium, many health experts recommend taking in at least five times more potassium than sodium.

Natrium is in het lichaam een van de elektrolyten (naast kalium-ionen, chloride-ionen en kaliumwaterstofcarbonaat). Het helpt om de balans tussen het vocht in en buiten de cellen te handhaven door middel van osmose. Het ion is van belang bij een aantal transportmechanismen over de celwand. Het meeste natrium bevind zich in het bloedplasma en speelt een rol in de vochtbalans van het lichaam.

De opneembaarheid van mineralen is afhankelijk van de vorm waarin deze wordt aangeboden. Er zijn anorganische mineraalverbindingen en organische mineraalverbindingen. Anorganische verbindingen worden over het algemeen slecht door het lichaam opgenomen en worden slecht getransporteerd. Voorbeelden van anorganische verbindingen zijn:

Veel minder goed opgenomen: Oxiden, sulfaten, fosfaten, carbonaten, hydroxiden, chloriden, selenaten en selenieten.

Organische mineraalverbindingen worden over het algemeen redelijk tot goed in het spijsverteringskanaal opgenomen en kunnen goed naar de cellen worden getransporteerd. Voorbeelden van organische verbindingen zijn:

Goed opgenomen:  chelaten, gluconaten, glycinaten, citraten, ascorbaten en picolinaten.
Een deel van het calcium moet toch in de calcium carbonaat vorm zijn speciaal voor de wervelkolom, daar komt bijvoorbeeld
calcium hydroxyapatite niet terecht. Voor de beste opname moet ook calcium carbonaat worden genomen

Voor calcium:
Microcrystalline calcium hydroxyapatite compound (MCHC)
Vibrant Life Bone Dense Calcium
hydroxyapatite is een calcium phosphate en zit in koeienmelk.

Goed beter best:

Source Naturals Life Minerals  Calcium, magesium en kalium in verschillende goed opneembare soorten.
usd 12 per 120 bij bijvoorbeeld amazon.com 4 tabl. / dag   (met een calcium carbonaat erbij)

Now Full spectrum mineral Caps: calcium hydroxyapatite (goed opneembaar, goede vorm omdat het gelijk is aan de vorm in het lichaam) alle mineralen prima opneembaar alleen deel magnesium in oxide vorm ander deel citrate.    Veel minder hoge dosering van alle spore elementen - 50% dan Source Naturals
usd 16 per 240    4 tabl. / dag   (met een calcium carbonaat erbij)

L
et op er zijn onder bijna dezelfde naam, maar zonder'"caps" veel mindere kwaliteit full spectrum mulimineralen te koop van Now.

Solgar chelated solamins multimineral: minder goed  deel magnesium oxide, kalium chloride.
Bonusan Multi Mineral Forte minder goed  calcium carbonaat en kalium chloride
Orthica Mineral Max - wat minder
deel magnesium oxide, kalium chloride.
Jarrow bevat calcium malate maar magnesium oxide en kalium chloride
De Tuinen - mindere kwaliteit.

Beste mogelijk: 2 stuks
Source Naturals Life Minerals  en 2 stuks Now Full spectrum mineral Caps en 1 calcium carbonaat per dag.

Samenstelling rehydratie vloeistof     ORS       Oral Rehydration Solution

   mmol/liter                  ORS          SPORTDRANK            COLA
                                                               Aquarius

Glucose                      100                        -                             700
Sacharose                     -                        190                           -
Na                                60                         9,6                         2
Kalium                          20                         0,6                          -
Citraat                          10                         ?                             -
chloride                         80                          6,7                         ?
Osmolaritiet                 225                       350                        750  

 


 

Vergelijk
Ingredinten

LoSalt
mineraalzout

Lo
Salt
mineraalzout met Jodium
Gewoon
zout
Kaliumchloride
66,0% min.
66,0% min.
---
Natriumchloride
33,3% max.
33,3% max.
99,7% min.
Jodium
---
50 mg/kg (Kl)
---
Antiklontermiddel
(Magnesiumcarb.)
0,5%
0,5%
0,2%

100 gram LoSalt mineraalzout bevat 13,1 gr natrium en 34,6 gr kalium.
2 gram LoSalt mineraalzout bevat 262 mg natrium en 692 mg kalium.

De concentratie van natrium in het plasma wordt nauw gereguleerd (135-145 mmol/L) door het antidiuretisch hormoon en het dorstmechanisme. Het zijn beide functies van de [hypothalamus], samen verantwoordelijk voor de vochtbalans. De totale hoeveelheid natrium die zich in het lichaam bevindt wordt daarentegen binnen de gewenste grenzen gehouden door volumesensoren in het hart en de grote bloedvaten (via het atrium-natriuretische peptide) en het RAAS (renine-angiotensine-aldosteron systeem). Men spreekt in dit geval van de zoutbalans, die ervoor zorgt dat het plasmavolume en de bloeddruk op peil blijven. Diuretica (plastabletten) kunnen ervoor zorgen dat het natrium in de urine komt en uit het lichaam verdwijnt. Er verdwijnt dan ook water uit het lichaam door het toenemen van de hoeveelheid urine. In het laboratorium kan de natriumconcentratie worden bepaald in ontstold bloed (vaak ontstold door heparine) door de cellen af te draaien en het plasma af te pipetteren. Daarin kan dan met behulp van ion-selectieve elektroden het gehalte aan natrium in het bloed of urine bepaald worden.

 

Solutions: Oral rehydration solution should contain complex carbohydrate or 2% glucose and 50 to 90 mEq/L of Na. Sports drinks, sodas, juices, and similar drinks do not meet these criteria and should not be used. They generally have too little Na and too much carbohydrate to take advantage of Na/glucose cotransport, and the osmotic effect of the excess carbohydrate may result in additional fluid loss.


ORS                       Na 90, K 20, Cl 80, citrate 10, and glucose 111      (standard WHO ORS) or
Reduced  ORS        Na 75, K 20, Cl 65, citrate 10, and glucose 75        (WHO reduced-osmolarity ORS

Reduced
Natriumchloride NaCl     0.52 gram/ 200 ml
Glucose                        2.7 gram/ 200 ml
Kaliumchloride KCl     0.3 gram/ 200 ml
Trisodium Citrate           0.58 gram/ 200 ml
 

ORS wordt toegediend in geval van ernstige diarree in combinatie met braken, waardoor het lichaam kan uitdrogen. Drinken van water zonder toevoegingen blijkt geen effect te hebben; het water verlaat het lichaam binnen de kortste keren weer.

Toevoegen van een kwart theelepel zout en een eetlepel suiker aan een glas water zorgt ervoor dat het vocht opgenomen kan worden. De juiste concentratie van met name de zouten vergemakkelijkt de opname van het water door de darmen. Suiker en zout worden gezamenlijk opgenomen in de darmen, waarbij water wordt meegetrokken. Zo zal het watertekort in het lichaam afnemen.

Het is te koop bij de apotheek. Een oraal rehydratiemiddel kun je ook zelf maken volgens het onderstaande recept:

Ga uit van 1 liter schoon (steriel) water, en voeg daaraan toe:

Het laatste ingredint is alleen voor de smaak, om het geheel wat drinkbaarder te maken. Vooral voor kinderen kan dat belangrijk zijn.

Rehydratievloeistof kan ook worden gemaakt met kant-en-klare zakjes waarin naast keukenzout en suiker ook kaliumzout en bicarbonaat is toegevoegd die eveneens een rol spelen bij de zoutbalans en het vochtevenwicht..


Zeezout

De zee is zout omdat er 'zout' in opgelost is. In n liter zeewater zit ongeveer 35 gram, een hoeveelheid vergelijkbaar met drie afgestreken eetlepels keukenzout. Maar er is meer aan de hand. Het zout in zeewater is in feite een mengsel van vele zouten. Ruim driekwart van dat mengsel bestaat uit 'steenzout', dat wij in gezuiverde vorm als keukenzout kennen.


Zeezout wordt gewonnen door zeewater in te dampen en wordt gebruikt als een ingedint in de keuken en sommige cosmetische producten.
In het zeewater bevinden zich diverse zouten in opgeloste toestand. En liter zeewater bevat ongeveer 35 gram zouten:

natriumchloride 68 %
magnesiumchloride 14 %
natriumsulfaat 11 %
calciumchloride 2 %
magnesiumbromide 2.2 %

Chloride (Cl-) 55.03%
Sodium (Na+) 30.59%
Sulfate (SO42-) 7.68%
Magnesium (Mg2+) 3.68%
Calcium (Ca2+) 1.18%
Potassium (K+) 1.11%
Bicarbonate (HCO3-) 0.41%
Bromide (Br-) 0.19%
Borate (BO33-) 0.08%
Strontium (Sr2+) 0.04%
Everything else 0.01%


Door deze samenstelling heeft zeezout een andere smaak dan keukenzout dat voornamelijk uit natriumchloride bestaat.

Zeezout wordt door sommigen beschouwd als een gezonder alternatief voor keukenzout.


Dode Zeezout

Het Dode Zeezout heeft een heel andere samenstelling dan het zout van de oceanen, het bevat veel meer van zouten zoals magnesiumchloride (53%) en kaliumchloride (37%) en relatief veel minder natriumchloride en ziet er daardoor wat doffer uit dan kristallen zuivere keukenzout.

magnesium chloride (MgCl2) 50.8%   51 mg/gram
sodium chloride (common salt, NaCl) 30.4%. 30 mg/gram

calcium chloride (CaCl2) 14.4%, 14 mg/gram
potassium chloride (KCl) 4.4%,   4.4 mg/gram

sodium chloride In comparison, the salt in the water of most oceans and seas is approximately 97%

Boron, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Fluorine, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Rubidium, Selenium, Silicon, Strontium, Vanadium, and Zinc.

Blood serum

Magnesium 1.7 to 2.2 mg/dL
Serum Calcium: 8 to 10 mg/dl
(bound calcium plus free calcium)
Normal potassium levels measured in the serum range from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/liter.

Daily intake

Sodium 2400 mg (=6 g salt)
Potassium (kalium) 3500 mg

Calcium 1000 mg
Magnesium 400 mg
Manganese 5 mg
Phosphorus 1000 mg
Zinc 15 mg
Chlorine 3400 mg (in chloride form)
 
other


Himalaya zout video

Himalaya zout is een ongeraffineerde en natuurzuivere zout die een zuiverende en geneeskrachtige eigenschappen heeft, dit in tegenstelling tot ons huidige geproduceerde chemische zout, waarin voornamelijk natrium en chloor zit. In het Himalayazout bevinden zich 84 natuurlijke elementen, mineralen en sporenelementen.

Color - Light pink with variations of white and red.
Odor - Salty
Sodium Chloride  98.32%
Calcium   0.4%
Potassium  0.12%
Sulphur   0.11%
Magnesium   0.1%
Iron  0.06%
Phosphorus  0 .05%
Iodine  0 .002%
Manganese  0 .0015%
Copper  0.001%
Zinc   0.0006%


While our body only requires the minute amount of 0.007 ounces of salt per day, most of us suffer from a lack of salt, even though we're over-saturated with sodium chloride. When our consumption of salt is less than 0.007 ounces per day, salt craving kicks in. The average, per capita, daily consumption of table salt in the U.S. is between 0.4 ounces and 0.7 ounces. However, our body is only able to excrete 0.17 ounces to 0.25 ounces a day through our kidneys, depending on our age, constitution and sex. The body recognizes table salt as an aggressive cellular poison, an unnatural substance, and wants to eliminate it as quickly as possible in order to protect itself. This causes a constant overburden on our organs of excretion. In almost every preserved product, salt is used as part of the preservation process. So, by adding salt to the already salted food, the body receives more salt than it can get rid of. The body now tries to isolate the over-dose of salt in this process. Water molecules surround the sodium chloride in order to ionize it into sodium and chloride to neutralize it. For this process, the water is taken from our cells as the body sacrifices its most perfectly structured cell water in order to neutralize sodium chloride. With this, the dehydrated body cells die

 

Drink Myhill's Magic Minerals (or make up with a cream to rub onto skin)

This is a mix of minerals which you make up in water or fruit juice, all essential for human metabolism and increasingly lacking in modern food supplies. It contains minerals in the correct proportion for human requirements. The amounts given below are elemental weights of the pure mineral. These amounts are those considered desirable from modern nutrition research and are mostly above the "Recommended Daily Amount" (RDA). These RDA amounts were set down in 1941 and are now outdated. If better preparations come available or I learn more about essential minerals, then the composition of MMMs may change. The new formulation of MMMs contains B12 (1mg per gram) and vitamin D 1,000iu per gram. I am also sourcing lithium - in doses of 1mg per day; this is protective against dementia (lithium to treat mental disorders is used in hundreds of milligrams).

Per one gram of MMM Myhill Magic Minerals

  • Calcium (as calcium chloride) 60 mgs   6 %
  • Magnesium (as magnesium chloride) 70 mgs   7%
  • Potassium (as potassium chloride) 40 mgs  4 %
  • Zinc (as zinc chloride) 6 mgs
  • Iron (as ferric ammonium chloride) 3 mgs
  • Boron (as sodium borate) 2 mgs
  • Iodine (as potassium iodate) 0.3 mg
  • Copper (as copper sulphate) 0.2 mg
  • Manganese (as manganese chloride) 0.2 mgs
  • Molybdenum (as sodium molybdate) 40 mcg
  • Selenium (as sodium selenate) 40 mcg
  • Chromium (as chromium chloride) 40 mcg
  • Vitamin B12 1,000 mcg
  • Vitamin D (as cholecalciferol) 1,000iu

    Potassium intake

    The average American is deficient in potassium and the U.S. Government has done national studies which measure the average adult American as getting about 2,500 mg a day in their diet, whereas the adequate intake of potassium for adults is 4,700 mg per day.
     

    Which Form of Potassium is Best?    Potassium bicarbonate or citrate

    An important consideration when selecting a potassium supplement is its form. The potassium bicarbonate form helps to neutralize acid or alkalinize you. This is in marked contrast to a chloride form that will acidify you. Therefore note if the potassium you are getting is like that in fruits and vegetables, the bicarbonate form. It is wise to avoid potassium chloride.
    Potassium Bicarbonate powder is approximately 39.05% elemental potassium.
    Supplements only contain some 100 mg elemental potassium. Potassium has to come from food.

    Potassium has to come from food.


     


    More potassium and more magnesium, less sodium.

    Potassium is fairly abundant in the body with a total content of about 135 grams (3500 mmol). Most, 98% to be exact, is found inside the cells, while the remaining 2% or about 2700 mg is found outside the cells, more specifically in blood serum. Blood serum level is normally maintained between 3.5 and 5.3 mmol/L. Humans evolved on a diet rich in potassium and low in sodium, so the body is designed to retain sodium and excrete potassium. Homeostasis (level between 3.5 - 5.3 mmol/L or 3.5 - 5.3 mEq/L) is maintained by excretion through the kidneys matching oral intake and by shifting potassium between intracellular and extracellular compartments.
    Unfortunately, our modern diet tends to produce sodium overload and potassium depletion (hypokalemia).


    A low magnesium level (hypomagnesemia) increases potassium excretion and it is difficult to remedy hypokalemia without first attaining normal magnesium levels.


    One study found that 42% of people with low magnesium levels also had low potassium levels.
    The Scottish researchers also outline, in considerable detail, what can be done to remedy hypokalemia. They suggest that supplementation with potassium, on its own, is unlikely to increase levels significantly. The problem is that increased potassium intake activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) which promptly proceeds to generate large amounts of aldosterone which, in turn, causes potassium to be excreted and more sodium to be retained. They estimate that a serum potassium increase of just 0.25 mmol/L results in an aldosterone increase of 50-100%.
    For those with low potassium levels the Scottish researchers recommend supplementation with potassium and magnesium combined with an aldosterone blockade to prevent increased potassium excretion.

     

    Bij het syndoom of de ziekte van Conn maken de bijnieren te veel van het hormoon aldosteron aan. Dit hormoon regelt de zout- en waterhuishouding in het lichaam, en daarmee de bloeddruk. Door een teveel aan aldosteron ontstaat een (soms ernstig) verhoogde bloeddruk (maligne hypertensie). Dit kn gepaard gaan met een laag kaliumgehalte in spieren en bloed, maar dit is lang niet altijd het geval.

    De aandoening openbaart zich meestal in de leeftijdsklasse 30-50 jaar.

    De klachten zijn vaak heel algemeen van aard. Hierdoor kan het lang duren voor het syndroom herkend wordt en de juiste diagnose wordt gesteld.

    Klachten kunnen zijn:

    • Algemene moeheid
    • Spierzwakte
    • Spierkramp
    • Vaak hoofdpijn
    • Overmatige dorst (polydipsie)
    • Vaker plassen (polyurie), vooral 's nachts
    • Hartkloppingen (bradycardie)
    • Tinteling in bijvoorbeeld handen en voeten

       
      Het overmatig eten van drop kan verschijnselen geven die lijken op het syndroom van Conn. Het zoethoutwortelextract in drop bevat Glycyrrhizinezuur, een stof die de omzetting van cortisol in het inactieve cortison remt. Omdat cortisol een soortgelijk effect heeft als aldosteron op de aldosteronreceptor in de nier, zal het overmatige cortisol de werking van aldosteron gaan nabootsen.
       
High potassium (Kalium K) foods (more than 200 mg per serving):

One papaya (781 mg).
One cup of prune juice (707). pruimen sap
One cup of cubed cantaloupe (494) or diced honeydew melon (461).
One small banana (467).
One-third cup of raisins (363). rozijnen
One medium mango (323) or kiwi (252).
One small orange (237) or one-half cup of orange juice (236).
One medium pear (208).
One-half cup of cooked pinto beans (400), lentils (365), or dried peas (355).
One cup of soy milk (345).
Three ounces of baked or broiled salmon (319).
Six ounces of yogurt (398).
One cup of 2 percent white milk (377).

One cup of tomato juice (535) or chopped or sliced tomato (400).
One baked sweet potato, with skin (508).
One-half of a medium avocado (450).
One-half of a medium potato, with skin (422). halve aardappel met schil

Brussel sprouts, boiled 1 cup  (494)  spruitjes gekookt
Spinach, boiled 1 cup (838) spinazie
Swiss chard, boiled 1 cup  960.75 snijbiet
Crimini mushrooms, raw 5 oz-wt  (635) koffie kleurige champignons
Broccoli, steamed 1 cup (505)
Tuna, yellowfin, baked/broiled 4 oz-wt (645) Tonijn
Dates, chopped  (581)   Dadels
Figs, dried, five (666)  Vijgen gedroogd
Grape juice,  1 cup (334) Druivensap


 
World's Healthiest Foods ranked as quality sources of:
potassium
Food Serving
Size
Cals Amount
(mg)
DV
(%)
Nutrient
Density
World's
Healthiest
Foods Rating
Swiss chard, boiled      snijbiet 1 cup 35.0 960.75 27.4 14.1 excellent
Romaine lettuce 2 cup 15.7 324.80 9.3 10.7 very good
Crimini mushrooms, raw 5 oz-wt 31.2 635.04 18.1 10.5 excellent
Spinach, boiled           spinazie 1 cup 41.4 838.80 24.0 10.4 excellent
Celery, raw 1 cup 19.2 344.40 9.8 9.2 very good
Basil, dried, ground 2 tsp 7.5 103.00 2.9 7.0 good
Mustard greens, boiled 1 cup 21.0 282.80 8.1 6.9 very good
Fennel, raw, sliced 1 cup 27.0 360.18 10.3 6.9 very good
Broccoli, steamed 1 cup 43.7 505.44 14.4 6.0 very good
Winter squash, baked, cubes 1 cup 80.0 895.85 25.6 5.8 very good
Cucumbers, slices, with peel 1 cup 13.5 149.76 4.3 5.7 good
Blackstrap molasses 2 tsp 32.1 340.57 9.7 5.5 very good
Tomato, ripe 1 cup 37.8 399.60 11.4 5.4 very good
Turnip greens, cooked 1 cup 28.8 292.32 8.4 5.2 very good
Collard greens, boiled 1 cup 49.4 494.00 14.1 5.1 very good
Summer squash, cooked, slices 1 cup 36.0 345.60 9.9 4.9 very good
Eggplant, cooked, cubes 1 cup 27.7 245.52 7.0 4.6 very good
Cantaloupe, cubes 1 cup 56.0 494.40 14.1 4.5 very good
Green beans, boiled 1 cup 43.8 373.75 10.7 4.4 very good
Kale, boiled 1 cup 36.4 296.40 8.5 4.2 very good
Brussel sprouts, boiled   Spruitjes gekookt 1 cup 60.8 494.52 14.1 4.2 very good
Carrots, raw                     Wortel rauw 1 cup 52.5 394.06 11.3 3.9 very good
Turmeric, powder 2 tsp 16.0 114.48 3.3 3.7 good
Beets, Boiled 1 cup 74.8 518.50 14.8 3.6 very good
Asparagus, boiled 1 cup 43.2 288.00 8.2 3.4 very good
Papaya 1 each 118.6 781.28 22.3 3.4 very good
Bell peppers, red, raw, slices     Paprika 1 cup 24.8 162.84 4.7 3.4 good
Cauliflower, boiled 1 cup 28.5 176.08 5.0 3.2 good
Apricots 1 each 16.8 103.60 3.0 3.2 good
Ginger root 1 oz-wt 19.6 117.65 3.4 3.1 good
Yam (Dioscorea species), cubed, cooked 1 cup 157.8 911.20 26.0 3.0 good
Strawberries      Aardbei 1 cup 43.2 239.04 6.8 2.8 good
Kiwifruit 1 each 46.4 252.32 7.2 2.8 good
Chili pepper, dried 2 tsp 25.5 126.00 3.6 2.5 good
Cod, baked/broiled 4 oz-wt 119.1 586.28 16.8 2.5 good
Lima beans, cooked 1 cup 216.2 955.04 27.3 2.3 good
Cabbage, shredded, boiled 1 cup 33.0 145.50 4.2 2.3 good
Banana 1 each 108.6 467.28 13.4 2.2 good
Grapefruit 0.50 each 36.9 158.67 4.5 2.2 good
Onions, raw            Ui 1 cup 60.8 251.20 7.2 2.1 good
Halibut, baked/broiled 4 oz-wt 158.8 653.18 18.7 2.1 good
Tuna, yellowfin, baked/broiled  Tonijn 4 oz-wt 157.6 645.25 18.4 2.1 good
Snapper, baked/broiled 4 oz-wt 145.2 591.95 16.9 2.1 good
Oranges    sinaasappel 1 each 61.6 237.11 6.8 2.0 good
Potato, baked, with skin aardappel met huid 1 cup 133.0 509.96 14.6 2.0 good
Avocado, slices 1 cup 235.1 874.54 25.0 1.9 good
Yogurt, low-fat 1 cup 155.1 572.81 16.4 1.9 good
Watermelon, diced 1 cup 48.6 176.32 5.0 1.9 good
Pinto beans, cooked 1 cup 234.3 800.28 22.9 1.8 good
Green peas, boiled 1 cup 134.4 433.60 12.4 1.7 good
Sweet potato, baked, with skin 1 each 95.4 306.05 8.7 1.7 good
Lentils, cooked 1 cup 229.7 730.62 20.9 1.6 good
Kidney beans, cooked 1 cup 224.8 713.31 20.4 1.6 good
Figs, fresh 8 oz-wt 167.8 526.18 15.0 1.6 good
Plum 1 each 36.3 113.52 3.2 1.6 good
Prunes 0.25 cup 101.6 316.63 9.0 1.6 good
Cow's milk, 2% 1 cup 121.2 376.74 10.8 1.6 good
Raspberries 1 cup 60.3 186.96 5.3 1.6 good
Split peas, cooked 1 cup 231.3 709.52 20.3 1.6 good
Soybeans, cooked 1 cup 297.6 885.80 25.3 1.5 good
Goat's milk 1 cup 167.9 498.74 14.2 1.5 good
Scallops, baked/broiled 4 oz-wt 151.7 444.46 12.7 1.5 good
Grapes 1 cup 61.6 175.72 5.0 1.5 good

1 cup = 240 millilitres    (water= 240 gram / flour = 140 gram)

Wat betreft verzuring staan tegenover de basische  producten als groente en fruit:
Vlees, vis, zuivelproducten, witmeel en suiker. Deze producten verzuren het lichaam en gaan daarmee tegen de alkalische werking van groente en fruit in.

Bijna alle wat meer eiwitten bevattende voedselsoorten zijn zuur.
Behalve amandelen.




Zout:

 

1 snee bruinbrood (35 g) ca 0,5 g keukenzout
1 snee krentenbrood (35 g) ca 0,3 g keukenzout
1 croissant (40 g) ca 0,9 g keukenzout
1 plak Goudse kaas (48+) (20 g) ca 0,5 g keukenzout
1 plak Maasdammer kaas (45+) (20 g) ca 0,3 g keukenzout
1 plak schouderham (15 g) ca 0,4 g keukenzout
1 plak bacon (15 g) ca 0,6 g keukenzout
1 plak runderrookvlees (15 g) ca 1,5 g keukenzout

 

Augurken, per stuk 90   mg  
Beschuit 25   mg  
Boter 30   mg  
Brood 190 mg  
Casselerrib 120 mg  
Cervelaatworst 140 mg  
Cornedbeef 150 mg  
Cracker 25   mg  
Gebraden gehakt 110 mg  
Gistenextract (Marmite) 140 mg  
Kaas 200 mg  
Kalkoenfilet 380 mg  
Ketjap manis, per eetlepel 730 mg  
Koekje 30   mg  
Leverpastei 120 mg  
Mayonaise, per eetlepel 45   mg  
Melk 70   mg  
Mosterd, per theelepel 20   mg  
Ontbijtkoek 65   mg  
Pindas, per eetlepel 50   mg  
Pindakaas 40   mg  
Rookvlees 430 mg  
Sambal oeloek, per theelepel 140 mg  
Smeerkaas 170 mg  
Soep 670 mg  
Tomatenketchup, per eetlepel 180 mg  

 

Fosfor (P):

Fosfor is een mineraal dat in onze voeding en het lichaam voorkomt in de gebonden toestand als fosfaat. Het voorziet de cellen van energie in de vorm van adenosinetrifosfaat ATP. ATP is de belangrijkste vorm van chemische energie in al onze cellen. Verder is fosfor onmisbaar voor de productie van fosfolipiden, zoals onder vele andere lecithine, die voor het transport van vetten door het lichaam zorgdragen.

Het is ook onmisbaar bij tal van enzymprocessen in het lichaam. Fosfaat is een bouwsteen en geeft samen met calcium structuur aan het skelet (botten) en onze tanden en kiezen. De kans op een tekort aan fosfor (hypofosfatemie) is maar klein. De koolzuurhoudende frisdranken bijvoorbeeld, bevatten zeer veel fosforzuur wat op zich weer slecht is voor onze botten. Een tekort aan fosfor uit zich in gebrek aan eetlust, spierpijn of spierzwakte, nervositeit, lusteloosheid en vermoeidheid.

De belangrijkste natuurlijke leveranciers van fosfor zijn karnemelk, havermout, tarwekiemen, verschillende kazen, mesli, tarwemeel, knckebrd, magere vleeswaren, kipfilet, vis, schaal- en schelpdieren.


Fosfor zit vooral in melkproducten, kaas, vlees, vis, ei en volkorengraanprodukten.
1 glas halfvolle melk (150 ml): 140 mg
Plak kaas (20 gram) : 100 mg
100g vis: 200 mg
75g vlees (75 gram): 185 mg
50g peulvruchten: 80 mg


 

Aanbevolen dagelijkse opnamehoeveelheid Fosfor  
Leeftijd Fosfor (milligram)
0-5 maand 300
6 - 11 maand 500
1 - 10 jaar 700
11 - 14 jaar 900
15 - 18 jaar 1000
Volwassenen 800
Vrouwen na menopauze 1000
60 - plussers 1000
zwangerschap 1000
borstvoeding 1000

Phosphorus is a major structural component of bone in the form of a calcium phosphate salt called hydroxyapatite. Phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine) are major structural components of cell membranes. All energy production and storage are dependent on phosphorylated compounds, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate. Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), which are responsible for the storage and transmission of genetic information, are long chains of phosphate-containing molecules. A number of enzymes, hormones, and cell-signaling molecules depend on phosphorylation for their activation. Phosphorus also helps to maintain normal acid-base balance (pH) by acting as one of the body's most important buffers. Additionally, the phosphorus-containing molecule 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells and affects oxygen delivery to the tissues of the body (1).

Nutrient interactions:

Fructose

A study of 11 adult men found that a diet high in fructose (20% of total calories) resulted in increased urinary loss of phosphorus and a negative phosphorus balance (i.e., daily loss of phosphorus was higher than daily intake). This effect was more pronounced when the diet was also low in magnesium (3). A potential mechanism for this effect is the lack of feedback inhibition of the conversion of fructose to fructose-1-phosphate in the liver. In other words, fructose-1-phosphate accumulates in the cell but this compound does not inhibit the enzyme that phosphorylates fructose, which consumes large amounts of phosphate. This phenomenon is known as phosphate trapping (1). This study's finding is relevant because fructose consumption in the U.S. has been increasing rapidly since the introduction of high fructose corn syrup in 1970, while magnesium intake has decreased over the past century (3).

Calcium and vitamin D

Dietary phosphorus is readily absorbed in the small intestine, and any excess phosphorus absorbed is excreted by the kidneys. The regulation of blood calcium and phosphorus levels is interrelated through the actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D (diagram). A slight drop in blood calcium levels (e.g., in the case of inadequate calcium intake) is sensed by the parathyroid glands, resulting in their increased secretion of PTH. PTH stimulates conversion of vitamin D to its active form (calcitriol) in the kidneys. Increased calcitriol levels in turn result in increased intestinal absorption of both calcium and phosphorus. Both PTH and vitamin D stimulate bone resorption, resulting in the release of bone mineral (calcium and phosphate) into the blood. Although PTH stimulation results in decreased urinary excretion of calcium, it results in increased urinary excretion of phosphorus. The increased urinary excretion of phosphorus is advantageous in bringing blood calcium levels up to normal because high blood levels of phosphate suppress the conversion of vitamin D to its active form in the kidneys (4).

Is high phosphorus intake detrimental to bone health?

Some investigators are concerned about the increasing amounts of phosphates in the diet which can be attributed to phosphoric acid in soft drinks and phosphate additives in a number of commercially prepared foods (5, 6). Because phosphorus is not as tightly regulated by the body as calcium, serum phosphate levels can rise slightly with a high phosphorus diet, especially after meals. High phosphate levels in the blood reduce the formation of the active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) in the kidneys, reduce blood calcium, and lead to increased PTH release by the parathyroid glands. However, high serum phosphorus levels also lead to decreased urinary calcium excretion (2). If sustained, elevated PTH levels could have an adverse effect on bone mineral content, but this effect has only been observed in humans on diets that were high in phosphorus and low in calcium. Moreover, similarly elevated PTH levels have been reported in diets that were low in calcium without being high in phosphorus (7). Recently, a controlled trial in young women found no adverse effects of a phosphorus-rich diet (3,000 mg/day) on bone-related hormones and biochemical markers of bone resorption when dietary calcium intakes were maintained at almost 2,000 mg/day (8). At present, there is no convincing evidence that the dietary phosphorus levels experienced in the U.S. adversely affect bone mineral density. However, the substitution of phosphate-containing soft drinks and snack foods for milk and other calcium rich foods does represent a serious risk to bone health (see Calcium).

Deficiency

Inadequate phosphorus intake results in abnormally low serum phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia). The effects of hypophosphatemia may include loss of appetite, anemia, muscle weakness, bone pain, rickets (in children), osteomalacia (in adults), increased susceptibility to infection, numbness and tingling of the extremities, and difficulty walking. Severe hypophosphatemia may result in death. Because phosphorus is so widespread in food, dietary phosphorus deficiency is usually seen only in cases of near-total starvation. Other individuals at risk of hypophosphatemia include alcoholics, diabetics recovering from an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis, and starving or anorexic patients on refeeding regimens that are high in calories but too low in phosphorus (1, 2).

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for phosphorus was based on the maintenance of normal serum phosphate levels in adults, which was believed to represent adequate phosphorus intake to meet cellular and bone formation needs (2).

Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Phosphorus
Life Stage  Age  Males (mg/day)  Females (mg/day) 
Infants  0-6 months 100 (AI 100 (AI) 
Infants  7-12 months  275 (AI)  275 (AI) 
Children  1-3 years  460  460 
Children  4-8 years  500  500 
Children  9-13 years   1,250  1,250 
Adolescents  14-18 years  1,250  1,250 
Adults  19 years and older 700  700 
Pregnancy 18 years and younger 1,250 
Pregnancy  19 years and older 700 
Breast-feeding  18 years and younger 1,250 
Breast-feeding 19 years and older 700 

 

Sources

Food sources

Phosphorus is found in most foods because it is a critical component of all living organisms. Dairy products, meat, and fish are particularly rich sources of phosphorus. Phosphorus is also a component of many polyphosphate food additives and is present in most soft drinks as phosphoric acid. Dietary phosphorus derived from food additives is not calculated in most food databases, so the total amount of phosphorus consumed by the average person in the U.S. is not entirely clear. A large survey of nutrient consumption in the U.S. found that the average phosphorus intake was 1,495 mg/day in men and 1,024 mg/day in women. The Food and Nutrition Board estimates phosphorus consumption in the U.S. has increased 10% to 15% over the past 20 years (2).

The phosphorus in all plant seeds (beans, peas, cereals, and nuts) is present in a storage form of phosphate called phytic acid or phytate. Only about 50% of the phosphorus from phytate is available to humans because we lack enzymes (phytases) that liberate phosphorus from phytate (9). Yeasts possess phytases, so whole grains incorporated into leavened breads have more bioavailable phosphorus than whole grains incorporated into breakfast cereals or flat breads (2). The table below lists a number of phosphorus rich foods along with their phosphorus content in milligrams (mg). For more information on the nutrient content of foods, search the USDA food composition database.

Food Serving Phosphorus (mg)
Milk, skim 8 ounces 247
Yogurt, plain nonfat 8 ounces 385
Cheese, mozzarella; part skim 1 ounce 131
Egg 1 large, cooked 104
Beef 3 ounces, cooked* 173
Chicken 3 ounces, cooked* 155
Turkey 3 ounces, cooked* 173
Fish, halibut 3 ounces, cooked* 242
Fish, salmon 3 ounces, cooked* 252
Bread, whole wheat 1 slice 57
Bread, enriched white 1 slice 25
Carbonated cola drink 12 ounces 40
Almonds# 1 ounce (23 nuts) 134
Peanuts# 1 ounce 107
Lentils# 1/2 cup, cooked 178

*A 3-ounce serving is about the size of a deck of cards.
#Phosphorus from nuts, seeds, and grains is about 50% less bioavailable than phosphorus from other sources
 

1 cup = 240 millilitres    (water= 240 gram / flour = 140 gram)





 

Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
  Golden Delicious Apples Winesap apples
  Pears: Bartlett, Comice, Bosc, Seckel Other pears
  Grapes Nectarines, Greengage Plums
  Plums Other apricots
  Very ripe apricots Morello Cherries
  Bing Cherries  
  Peaches  
  Figs  
  Yellow plums (mirabelles)  
  Melons  
  Watermelon  
Berries
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
  Strawberries, big and sweet Strawberries, small and tart
  Gooseberries Red Currants in bunches
  Blueberries Black Currants
    Sea Buckthorn
    Mulberries
Citrus Fruits
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
  Clementines Mandarins
  Lemons Oranges
  Blueberries Citron
    Grapefruit
Exotic Fruits
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
Bananas Mangos Pineapples
  Pomegranates Kiwis
  Persimmons Citron
    Grapefruit
Dried Fruit
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
Raisins     Rozijnen Prunes Tart apricots, sulfur treated
Sweet Apricots, dried naturally Pears  
Bananas Apples  
Dates     Dadels Peaches  
  Figs  
  Mangos  
Vegetables
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
Potatoes    Aardappelen Green Vegetables  
Grasses    
Salad Greens: Chicory, Escarole, Lettuces, Mache, Dandelion    
Green Cabbage    
Celery Stalks    
Green Beans    
Fennel    
Beet Greens    
Artichokes    
Broccoli    
Brussel Sprouts    
Asparagus    
Colored Vegetables
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
Spinach Carrots  
Red Beets Endive  
Red Cabbage Celeriac  
Yellow Beans Salsify  
Sweet Potatoes Artichoke  
Peppers Cauliflower  
Garlic Radishes  
  Turnips  
  Onions  
  Shallots  
Fruiting Vegetables
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
Edible Gourds Avocado Eggplant
Zuchini Tomato Sour Pickles
Squash    
Cucumber    
Nuts
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
Almonds   Amandelen Cashews Walnuts
Brazil Nuts Sesame Seeds Hazelnuts
Black Olives in oil Pine nuts Peanuts
  Coconuts Pecans
  Green Olives Pistachios
    Pumpkin Seeds
    Olives in Brine or vinegar
Cereal Grains
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
Corn Wheat White Rice
Buckwheat Brown Rice Couscous
  Rye Semolina
  Barley  
  Spelt  
  Millet  
  Quinoa  
  Pilpil  
  Whole Semolina  
  Cream of Rice  
Breads
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
  Whole Grain Bread (without yeast) Yeast Bread
  Dark Bread White Bread
Other Grains
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
  Crackers - Whole Grain Crackers - White Flour
  Pasta - Whole Grain Pasta - White Flour
  Cereal - Whole Grain soaked for about 10 hours Sugar Frosted Cereal
  Naturally Baked Corn Flakes Sweetned Granola
  Granola Bar - Whole Grain with little sugar Granola Bar - With lots of sugar
  Cookies and Cakes - Whole Grain with little sugar Cookies, Cakes - White Flour with sugar
  Cookies and Cakes - Whole Grain with little sugar Cookies, Cakes and - White Flour with sugar
  Cookies and Cakes - Whole Wheat Pies and White Cake Flour
Dairy Products
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
Raw Whole Milk Pasteurized Milk Ultrapasteurized Milk
Banana Smoothie Fruit Smoothie Chocolate Milk
  Creme Fraiche  
Fresh Butter   Heated Butter used in cooking
Soft Unriped Cheeses - Well drained Soft Unriped Cheeses - Slightly drained  
  Soft Cheeses - Camembert, Brie, fresh young cheese with little fat content Soft Cheeses - Camembert, Brie, old cheese with high fat content
  Hard Cheeses - Swiss, Provolone Hard Cheeses - Stronger flavor, Parmesan
Acidophilous Milk Yogurt Drinks without sugar Yogurt Sweetened with Fruit
Fresh Whey Slightly Aged Whey Aged Whey
Fresh Buttermilk   Aged Buttermilk
Egg Yolk Whole Eggs  
Meat and Fish
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
  White Meat - Chicken, Rabbit, Veal, Young Lamb Red Meat - Cow, Mutton, Pig, Cold Cuts
  Lean Fish - Whiting, Sole, Flounder, Trout, Perch Fatty Fish - Salmon, Carp, Herring, Mackerel
  Oysters Crustaceans - Lobster, Shrimp, Crayfish, Mussels
Miscellaneous Foods
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
Raw Cane Sugar - Succanat Maple Syrup, Honey White, Brown Sugar
Sea Salt Table Salt Fatty Fish - Salmon, Carp, Herring, Mackerel
Virgin Cold Pressed: Sunflower,
Olive, Safflower, etc.
Heat Pressed: Sunflower,
Olive, Safflower, etc.
Peanut, Walnut, Hazelnut oils
used in cooking (heated)
nonhydrogenated vegetable
margarine
 
  hydrogenated margarine (palm or coconut oil
Beverages
Alkaline Slightly Acidic Very Acidic
Water with pH of 7 - 10 Tap Water Heavily Carbonated
Herbal Tea - Mint, Verbena, Linden, etc. Herabl Tea - Green Tea, Birchbark, Rose Hips, Fruit peels Coffee, Black Tea, Hot Chocolate with sugar
Green Juices from Grasses - Wheat Grass Tomato Juice Commercial Lemonade
Fresh Vegetable Juice
 
Fresh Lemonade Soda
  Beer Liqueurs, Cordials
  wine Strong Spirits








leidingwater en hoeveelheid mineralen

Bepaling watertype
Duitse Hardheid Franse Hardheid Concentratie zouten type water
0 tot 4 dH 0 tot 7 fH 0-20 mg/l zeer zacht water
4 tot 8 dH 7 tot 15 fH 20-40 mg/l zacht water
8 tot 12 dH 15 tot 22 fH 40-60 mg/l gemiddeld water
12 tot 18 dH 22 tot 32 fH 60-80 mg/l vrij hard water
18 tot 30 dH 32 tot 55 fH 80-120 mg/l hard water
>30 dH >55 fH >120 mg/l zeer hard water




Voorbeeld bronwater Spontin
Totaal opgeloste deeltjes   240 mg/l
Calcium (Ca++)                    38 mg/l
Magnesium (Mg++)              15 mg/l
Natrium (Na+)                       14 mg/l
Kalium (K+)                          2.5 mg/l
Bicarbonaat (HCO3-)        180 mg/l
Chloride (Cl-)                        19 mg/l
Sulfaat (SO4--)                     28 mg/l
Nitraat (NO3-)                      6.5 mg/l
Silica (SiO2)                         19 mg/l





Kringen onder de ogen is ook vocht tekort

Als mensen het hebben over hun wallen, dan hebben ze het meestal eigenlijk over kringen: de donkere kleur onder hun ogen. Bij een kring hebben we het over de groef onder de wal, het greppeltje. Deze is donker van kleur. Deze kleur kan genetisch bepaald zijn, maar ontstaat ook door een gebrek aan vocht onder het oog. Bijvoorbeeld als je een tekort aan vocht in je lichaam hebt. Of doordat je vochthuishouding door een of andere reden in de war is door ziekte of slecht slapen. Hierdoor wordt de huid onder je ogen dunner, en kijk je als het ware door de huid heen. Dan zie je de kleur van het grijze botvlies van je schedel, en de blauwige bloedvaten: dat is de kring. De huid onder de ogen is slechts 0.5 mm dik tegenover 2 mm op de rest van het lichaam. Het bloed in de aderen komt hier heel dicht onder de buitenkant van de huid. Als de huid doorzichtiger wordt door slaapgebrek of vocht of voedingsstoffen en ijzer tekort worden de aderen zichtbaar. Remedie: goed slapen, ijzer en andere mineralen nemen en voldoende water drinken.